Lefuba ke lefu le tshwaetsanwang leo hangata le bakwang ke baktheria ya Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).[1] Lefuba ka kakaretso le ama matshwafo, empa le ka ama dikarolo tse ding tsa mmele.[1] Boholo ba tshwaetso ha bo na matshwao, mme boemo boo bo tsejwa e le lefuba le ipatileng. Hoo e ka bang 10% ya tshwaetso e ipatileng e qetella e le malwetse ao, ha eba a sa phekolwe, a bolayang hoo e ka bang halofo ya ba amehang.[1] Matshwao a tsebahalang a TB ha e tshwere motho ke ho kgohlela haholo le dikgohlela tse nang le madi, feberu, ho fufulelwa bosiu, le ho theoha ha boima ba mmele. Ho theoha hona ha boima ba mmele ke hona ho entseng hore ho bitswe ho "ho fela" ka puo ya kgale.[2] Tshwaetso ya ditho tse ding tsa mmele e ka baka matshwao a mangata.[3]

Lefuba le le fetiswa ka moea ha batho ba nang le tshwaetso ya TB matshwafong ba kgohlela, ba tshwela, ba bua, kapa ba thimola.[1][4] Batho ba nang le TB e ipatileng ba ke ke ba tshwaetsa ba bang.[1] Lefu lena le tshwaetsa haholo batho ba nang le tšoaetso ea HIV/AIDS le ba tsubang. Tlhahlobo ya tshwaetso ya TB e etswa ka di X-ray tsa sefuba, ha mmoho le tlhahlobo ya motjhine wa microscope le tlhahlobo ya maro a mmele. Ho hlahlojwa ha lefuba le ipatileng ho etswa ka tlhahlobo ya letlalo (TST) kapa diteko tsa madi.[5]

Thibelo ya lefuba e kenyelletsa ho hlahloba ba kotsing e kgolo, ha eba e fumanwa ka potlako le ho entwa ka ente ya bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG).[6][7][8] Batho ba kotsing e kgolo ba kenyeletsa ba dulang, ba sebetsang kapa ba tlwaelaneng le batho ba tshwaeditsweng ke TB.[8] Phekolo e hloka hore motho a sebedise dithibela-mafu tse ngata ka nako e telele.[1] Dikokwanahloko tse hanang meriana ke bothata bo ntseng bo eketseha e leng se etsang hore palo ya batho ba nang le lefuba le hanyetsanang le lithethefatsi (MDR-TB) e eketsehe[1].

Ho dumelwa hore motho a le mong ho ba bararo lefatsheng o tshwaeditswe ke lefuba.[1] Ho ba le tshwaetso e ntjha ho 1% ya baahi selemo ka seng[9]. Ka 2014, ke batho ba dimilione tse 9.6 million ba neng ba na le tshwaetso ya lefuba e leng se feletseng ka ho shwa ha batho ba dimilione tse 1.5. Batho ba etsang 95% ba ileng ba shwa ke ba dulang dinaheng tse tswelang pele. Palo ya batho tshwaetswang botjha e fokotsehile ha esale ho tloha ka 2000.[1] Hoo e ka bang 80% ya batho dinaheng tse ngata tsa Asia le Afrika ba na le tshwaetso ha batho ba dulang United States bao ho bonahetseng ba na le tshwaetso ha ba etswa teko letlKgalong e le 5–10%.[10] Ha e sale lefuba letshwara batho ho tloha dinakong tsa kgalekgale.[11]


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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104". WHO. October 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  2. The Chambers Dictionary. New Delhi: Allied Chambers India Ltd. 1998. p. 352. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8.
  3. Dolin, [edited by] Gerald L. Mandell, John E. Bennett, Raphael (2010. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. Chapter 250. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
  4. "Basic TB Facts". CDC. March 13, 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  5. Hawn, TR; Day, TA; Scriba, TJ; Hatherill, M; Hanekom, WA; Evans, TG; Churchyard, GJ; Kublin, JG; Bekker, LG; Self, SG (December 2014). "Tuberculosis vaccines and prevention of infection". Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR. 78 (4): 650–71. PMID 25428938.
  6. Harris, Randall E. (2013). Epidemiology of chronic disease : global perspectives. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 682. ISBN 9780763780470.
  7. Organization, World Health (2008). Implementing the WHO Stop TB Strategy : a handbook for national TB control programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 179. ISBN 9789241546676.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Tuberculosis". World Health Organization. 2002.
  9. Lawn, SD; Zumla, AI (2 July 2011). "Tuberculosis". Lancet. 378 (9785): 57–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3. PMID 21420161.
  10. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Mitchell RN (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. pp. 516–522. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1.
  11. Lawn, SD; Zumla, AI (2 July 2011). "Tuberculosis". Lancet. 378 (9785): 57–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62173-3. PMID 21420161.