Tlhaho ya ngwana

Tlhaho ya ngwana
Tlhophiso le mehlaodi ya kantle
Newborn infant and mother
Newborn infant and mother

Tlhaho ya ngwana , e tsejwang hape e le ho belehwa ha ngwana, ke pheletso ya boimanaya lesea le le leng kapa masea a fetangho tswa popelong yamosadi[1] Ka 2015 ho bile le ho hlaha ha bana ba dimilione tse 135 lefatshe ka bophara.[2] Ba ka bang dimilione tse 15 ba ne ba hlaha pele ho dibeke tse 37 tsa boimana,[3]ha ba mahareng 3% ho isa ho12% ba ile ba hlaha ya dibeke tse 42[4] Dinaheng tse tse tswetseng peleboholo ba ho belehwa ha masea ho ne ho etsahala sepetlele,[5][6]ha dinaheng tse tswelang pele tsa lefatsheboholo ba ho belehwa ha masea ho ne ho etsahala hae ka tshehetso ya mmelehisi wa setso[7]

Tlhaho ya masea e tlwaelehileng haholo ke ke ho belehwa ha tsel a tlhaho[8] Ho kenyeletse mekgahlelo e meraro ya ho beleha:kgutsofatsoleho buleha ha ha molomo wa popelo, ho theoha le ho hlaha ha ngwana, ho tswa kamohlaneng[9] Mokgahlelo wa pele ha e le hantle o nka diroha tse leshome le metso e mmedi ho isa ho tse leshome le metso e robong, mokgahlelo wa bobedi o nka metsotso e mashome a mabedi ho isa dihoreng tse pedi, mme mokgahlelo wa boraro o nka metsotso e mehlano ho isa ho e mashome a mararo. [10] Mokgahleo wa pele o qala ka mahlaba ka maleng kapa mahlaba mokokotlong a nkang ho etsang halofo ya motsotso mme a ba teng hape metsotso e meng le e meng e leshome ho isa ho e mashome a mararo.[9] Mahlaba a matlafala mme a atamelana ha nako e ntse e ya.[10] Nakong ya mokgahlelo wa bobedi ho sututswa le ho honyela ho kanna ha etsahala.[10] Mokgahleloong wa boraro ho diehitswa ha ho kgaoha ha lelana le hokahantseng lesea le mmalona ka popelong[11] Mekgwa e mengata e ka thusa ka lehlaba jwalo ka ditsela tsa ho hlephisa,sethethefatsi sa opoiods, le(di)sethibela mokokotlo (spinal bloc)[10]

Boholo ba masea bo pepuwa ka ho hlahisa hloho pele; leha ho le jwalo ho ka etsang 4% a pepuwa ka ho hlahisa maoto kapa maraopele, ho tsejwang e le ho pepa ha breechbreech[10][12] Nakong ya ho pepa ka kakaretso basadi ba kanna ba ja le ho sisinyeha ka moo ba ratang ka teng, ho sututsa ha ho a kgothaletswa nakong ya mokgahlelo wa pele kapa nakong eo hloho e hlahang, le tshebetso ya ho tshela sephalli ka mohlamung (enema)[13] Ho seha ho bula lesobabosading, ho bitswang, episiotomy, e tlwaelehile empa ka kakaretso ha e hlokahale.[10] Ka 2012, ho ka etsang dimilione tse 23 tsa ho pepa di entswe ka opareishene e bitswangCaesarea section[14] Caesarean sections di kanna tsa kgothaletswa bakeng samafahla,matshwao a mang bontshang kotsi leseeng kapa ho hlaha ha lesea ka karolo e nngwe ntle le hlooho.[10] Mokgwa ona wa ho beleha o kanna wa nka nako e teletsana ho fola.[10]

Selemo se seng le se seng mathata a boimana le ho hlaha ha ngwana ho baka ho ka etsang 500,000ha mafu a batswetse, dimilione tse 7 tsa basadi ba ba le mathata a nako e telele, le dimilione tse 50 tsa basadi di ba le sephetho se sebe maphelng a bona se bakwang ke ho beleha. [15] Boholo ba ona bo hlaha dinaheng tse ntseng di tswela pele[15] Mathata a ikgethang a kenyeletsa ho beleha ho sitisehileng,, tahlehelo ya madi nakwana ka mora ho beleha (postpartum bleeding),mathata a nang le matshosetsi bophelong a bakwang ke boimana(eclampsia), letshwaetso ka mora ho beleha[15] Mathata leseeng a kenyeletsaho fellwa ke oksejene nakong ya ho belehwa (asphyxia)[16]

DitshupuEdit

  1. Martin, Elizabeth. Concise Colour Medical Dictionary (in English). Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 9780199687992. 
  2. "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. July 11, 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  3. "Preterm birth Fact sheet N°363". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  4. Buck, Germaine M.; Platt, Robert W. (2011). Reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780199857746. 
  5. Co-Operation, Organisation for Economic; Development (2009). Doing better for children. Paris: OECD. p. 105. ISBN 9789264059344. 
  6. Olsen, O; Clausen, JA (12 September 2012). "Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (9): CD000352. PMID 22972043. 
  7. Fossard, Esta de; Bailey, Michael (2016). Communication for Behavior Change: Volume lll: Using Entertainment–Education for Distance Education. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9789351507581. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  8. Memon, HU; Handa, VL (May 2013). "Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders.". Women's health (London, England) 9 (3): 265–77; quiz 276–7. PMID 23638782. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Birth". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6 ed.). Columbia University Press. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-30 from Encyclopedia.com. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 "Pregnancy Labor and Birth". Women's Health. September 27, 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  11. McDonald, SJ; Middleton, P; Dowswell, T; Morris, PS (11 July 2013). "Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD004074. PMID 23843134. 
  12. Hofmeyr, GJ; Hannah, M; Lawrie, TA (21 July 2015). "Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD000166. PMID 26196961. 
  13. Childbirth: Labour, Delivery and Immediate Postpartum Care (in English). World Health Organization. 2015. p. Chapter D. ISBN 978-92-4-154935-6. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  14. Molina, G; Weiser, TG; Lipsitz, SR; Esquivel, MM; Uribe-Leitz, T; Azad, T; Shah, N; Semrau, K; Berry, WR; Gawande, AA; Haynes, AB (1 December 2015). "Relationship Between Cesarean Delivery Rate and Maternal and Neonatal Mortality". JAMA 314 (21): 2263–70. PMID 26624825. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15553. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Education material for teachers of midwifery : midwifery education modules (2nd ed.). Geneva [Switzerland]: World Health Organisation. 2008. p. 3. ISBN 978-92-4-154666-9. 
  16. Martin, Richard J.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Walsh, Michele C. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant (in English). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 116. ISBN 9780323295376.